| ||In late 2008, it was estimated that there were 250,000 Sudanese refugees in eastern Chad, 60 to 80 percent of this population being women and children. Most of the men are part of the Sudanese rebellion or militias and visit their families irregularly at night. Twelve camps have been set up in Sahelian and Sahelo-Saharan environments. This arid zone, where men and cattle only survive by keeping on the move, is not adapted to the lasting settlement of these people, whose presence increases the population of the region by one-quarter, raising important environmental problems: scarcity of firewood, limited water supply. Despite the distribution of economical cooking implements to the refugees and the implementation of reforestation projects near the camps by humanitarian organizations, wood and water collection can sometimes lead to conflicts with host populations. Additionally, the alimentary situation could deteriorate if the persistent civil unrest that impedes humanitarian activities and reduces the volume of essential services should be prolonged. Today most wars are conflicts internal to a country and 90 percent of victims are civilians.
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