| || Botswana’s policy of protecting fauna began before its independence in 1966, with the “Fauna Conservation Act” of 1963. Hunting in Botswana is permitted (excluding the elephant and brown hyena), but strictly regulated. It represents a major source of income for the country, which issues three types of permits: free of charge to those for whom hunting is a traditional means of subsistence; cheap for other Botswanians; and very expensive for foreign tourists. Subsistence hunting pays the highest dividends, as it is estimated that 90 percent of the animals killed are used for food. At the same time, foreigners bring in revenue not only from the hunting permits issued, but also from export taxes and entrance fees to national parks, which cover 17 percent of the country. In addition, many nongovernmental organizations work to promote and protect the wealth of fauna (164 species of mammals, 550 species of birds, and 150 species of reptiles). All have schemes to limit poaching, the real scourge of the African national parks.
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