| ||Since it was linked to Tokyo by the railway in 1872, the small fishing port of Yokohama has not stopped growing. It is now the largest international Japanese port and the second largest city in the country after the capital. The motorways around it are the symbol of economic development largely based on road transport, as is the case in many industrialized countries. According to this dominant model, roads have increased all over the world and there are now over 1 billion vehicles against 500 million in 1986. With 240 million registered vehicles, the United States alone owns almost one fourth of the world’s automobiles. Nowadays, China comes in second place with 78 million vehicles, that means 7, 6% of the world’s total. If we consider the number of vehicles per inhabitant, the United States has one vehicle per 1.3 inhabitants, whereas China has one per 17, 2 inhabitants. Despite the pollution it causes and the saturation of roads in towns, the world’s vehicles are still increasing (alone in 2010 there was an increase of 36 million vehicles). The transport sector is one of the main greenhouse gas emitters (23% in 2009) and the fastest in growth. The great number of users this sector makes limitation measures difficult. Since 1970, greenhouse gas emissions due to transport have increased by 120%.
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